Risk factors for primary pulmonary TB in Almaty Region, Kazakhstan: A matched case-control study

Baurzhan Zhussupov, Sabrina Hermosilla, Assel Terlikbayeva, Angela Aifah, Xin Ma, Zhaxybay Zhumadilov, Tleukhan Abildayev, Meruyert Darisheva, Kulzhan Berikkhanova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: This study examined the association between incident pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and social and behavioral characteristics in Almaty Oblast, Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2013. Methods: We used a matched case-control design to estimate the role of factors for acquiring pulmonary TB. Totally 324 individuals were recruited from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Participants included 110 TB index cases with newly detected pulmonary TB. Each case was matched with one household and one community control. A total of 107 household and 107 community controls were included to the study. Adjusted odds ratios measuring associations between TB and risk factors were calculated by using a conditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: TB cases were more likely to be younger, recent smokers and have diabetes, when compared to household controls. Between TB cases and community controls, TB was significantly associated with age, non-married family status, living in a rented home, recent smoker, and having diabetes. Comparing TB cases with community controls, we found that foreign birth was marginally associated with incident TB case status. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the role of modifiable risk factors for TB in Kazakhstan; highlighting the importance of developing interventions addressing social determinants and proximate risk factors for high TB burden regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-450
Number of pages10
JournalIranian Journal of Public Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 27 2016


  • Kazakhstan
  • Risk factors
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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