Sonoelectrochemical deposition of calcium phosphate coatings on carbon materials - Effect of electrolyte concentration

H. M. Han, G. J. Phillips, S. V. Mikhalovsky, S. FitzGerald, A. W. Lloyd

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Calcium phosphate was deposited on carbon materials using a sonoelectrochemical method in an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. The effect of electrolyte concentration on sonoelectrochemically deposited calcium phosphate coatings was investigated and the underlying deposition mechanisms were discussed. The morphology, size and composition of the crystalline deposits changed with the electrolyte concentration. A mixture of plate, sphere and needle-like deposits was obtained at Ca2+ ion concentrations greater than 16 mM, however needle-like hydroxyapatite (HA) was obtained at lower Ca2+ concentrations. Analysis revealed that the sonoelectrochemical deposition of calcium phosphate consists of two processes - nucleation and crystal growth. The results suggest that the homogeneous nucleation of calcium phosphates in solution, followed by their absorption onto the carbon surface may account for the mechanism of coating observed at higher ionic concentrations. At lower concentrations, heterogeneous nucleation occurs on the surface of the carbon fibres, followed by the development of islands of crystal growth. The lower ionic concentration was shown to favour the generation of hydroxyapatite on carbon-based materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2845-2850
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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