This paper presents the results of a systematic study of helium swelling and the subsequent process of degradation of the near-surface layer of aluminum-based nitride ceramics. The samples were irradiated with 40 keV He2+ ions at temperatures of 300 and 1000 K with a fluence of 1 × 1017-5 × 1017 ions/cm2. The choice of radiation doses and temperature conditions was due to the possibility of simulating reactor tests of structural materials. It has been established that an increase in the irradiation fluence leads to the formation of large agglomerates of clusters of helium bubbles, as well as an increase in the degree of roughness and waviness of the surface with the formation of crater-like inclusions. In the case of irradiation at high temperatures, there was a slight decrease in the average size of helium inclusions compared with irradiation at room temperature. However, the density of inclusions and surface roughness were much higher. It is established that irradiation at room temperatures leads to a sharp decrease in ceramics density, as well as deformation of the crystal structure due to an increase in the density of dislocations and macrostresses in the structure. The decrease in ceramics density due to the formation of helium inclusions led to an increase in porosity and a defective fraction in the structure of the surface layer of ceramics.