Synthesis of Free-Standing Tin Phosphide/Phosphate Carbon Composite Nanofibers as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Improved Low-Temperature Performance

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Abstract

Free-standing tin phosphide/phosphate carbon composite nanofiber mats of unique nanostructure have been successfully synthesized by electrospinning and partially reducing the phosphate-containing precursors. An unusual effect of the Sn:P molar ratio in the precursor solution on the structure and physical-electrochemical properties of the material is observed. Physical characterizations, including X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confirm the formation of tin phosphide/phosphate nanoparticles of P-rich inner Sn x P layer and Sn-rich outer layer uniformly distributed within carbon nanofiber matrix when the Sn:P=1:1. The prepared material is tested as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries and it retains 1141 mAh g -1 charge capacity after 300 cycles at a current density of 250 mA g -1 with almost 100% Coulombic efficiency at room temperature. Furthermore, it demonstrates six times higher capacity (846 mAh g -1 ) at 0 °C compared to a commercial graphite anode and stable cyclability at -20 °C and 50 mA g -1 . Post-mortem ex situ XRD and SEM analyses confirm the structural stability of the designed material and the formation of a uniform stable solid electrolyte interphase layer even after 100 cycles at 50 mA g - 1 .

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e2304062
JournalSmall
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Jul 28 2023

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