The effects of focusing in type-I and type-II difference-frequency generations

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41 Citations (Scopus)


Beam aperture functions are derived for type-I and type-II difference-frequency generations using focused TEMoo Gaussian beams. The effects of walk-off, absorption, focusing and beam waist location are included in the analysis performed under the undepleted input wave approximation, using a Green's function approach. General expressions for the focusing h functions are given for arbitrary values of the input seed-wave confocal parameters, together with their optimized hm(B,μ) values as a function of the walk-off and degeneracy parameters (B,μ). The criterion of equal confocal parameters (ECP) is found to be optimal only for non-critical phase-matching. For critical phase-matching, unequal confocal parameters (UCP) generally optimize the efficiency. The theory is illustrated with relevant performance comparisons between the various type-I and type-II DFG couplings using KTP and AgGaS2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)181-206
Number of pages26
JournalOptics Communications
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • Difference-frequency generation
  • Nonlinear optics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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