Trade liberalization, intermediate inputs, and productivity: Evidence from Indonesia

Mary Amiti, Jozef Konings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

926 Citations (Scopus)


This paper estimates the productivity gains from reducing tariffs on final goods and from reducing tariffs on intermediate inputs. Lower output tariffs can increase productivity by inducing tougher import competition, whereas cheaper imported inputs can raise productivity via learning, variety, and quality effects. We use Indonesian manufacturing census data from 1991 to 2001, which include plant-level information on imported inputs. The results show that a 10 percentage point fall in input tariffs leads to a productivity gain of 12 percent for firms that import their inputs, at least twice as high as any gains from reducing output tariffs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1611-1638
Number of pages28
JournalAmerican Economic Review
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics


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