Transformations and cracks in zirconia films leading to breakaway oxidation of Zircaloy

Haitham El Kadiri, Z. N. Utegulov, M. Khafizov, M. Asle Zaeem, M. Mamivand, A. L. Oppedal, K. Enakoutsa, M. Cherkaoui, R. H. Graham, A. Arockiasamy

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    26 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Using combined Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy, this paper suggests that breakaway oxidation of Zircaloy is caused by the change of circumferential stress sign from compressive to tensile, which triggers catastrophic cracks to propagate from the oxide free surface toward the oxide-metal interface. The stress sign changes at a critical oxide thickness, which depends on the circumferential stress at the interface. This biaxial interfacial stress is promoted by a lattice expansion stress that accompanies the tetragonal to monoclinic crystal phase transition. In contrast with current research in the literature, this allotropic transformation is suggested to be beneficial, not detrimental, because it contributes to retard the thresholds for the change of circumferential stress sign, and thus breakaway oxidation. The tetragonal phase was revealed to localize at the interface and adopt the shape of prismatic isosceles triangles detected at early stages of oxidation. These growth morphologies are consistent with a cationic oxidation mechanism. Upon phase transition, the monoclinic variant quickly dominates the oxide scale above the interfacial regions and forces the overall oxidation to proceed by an anionic diffusion mechanism. The results of Raman spectroscopy compared well with those of atomic force microscopy.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3923-3935
    Number of pages13
    JournalActa Materialia
    Volume61
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

    Fingerprint

    Zirconia
    Cracks
    Oxidation
    Oxides
    Raman spectroscopy
    Atomic force microscopy
    Phase transitions
    Optical microscopy
    zirconium oxide
    Metals
    Crystals

    Keywords

    • Breakaway
    • Cracking
    • Oxidation
    • Phase transformation
    • Zirconium alloys

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ceramics and Composites
    • Metals and Alloys
    • Polymers and Plastics
    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

    Cite this

    El Kadiri, H., Utegulov, Z. N., Khafizov, M., Asle Zaeem, M., Mamivand, M., Oppedal, A. L., ... Arockiasamy, A. (2013). Transformations and cracks in zirconia films leading to breakaway oxidation of Zircaloy. Acta Materialia, 61(11), 3923-3935. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2013.02.052

    Transformations and cracks in zirconia films leading to breakaway oxidation of Zircaloy. / El Kadiri, Haitham; Utegulov, Z. N.; Khafizov, M.; Asle Zaeem, M.; Mamivand, M.; Oppedal, A. L.; Enakoutsa, K.; Cherkaoui, M.; Graham, R. H.; Arockiasamy, A.

    In: Acta Materialia, Vol. 61, No. 11, 06.2013, p. 3923-3935.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    El Kadiri, H, Utegulov, ZN, Khafizov, M, Asle Zaeem, M, Mamivand, M, Oppedal, AL, Enakoutsa, K, Cherkaoui, M, Graham, RH & Arockiasamy, A 2013, 'Transformations and cracks in zirconia films leading to breakaway oxidation of Zircaloy', Acta Materialia, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 3923-3935. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2013.02.052
    El Kadiri, Haitham ; Utegulov, Z. N. ; Khafizov, M. ; Asle Zaeem, M. ; Mamivand, M. ; Oppedal, A. L. ; Enakoutsa, K. ; Cherkaoui, M. ; Graham, R. H. ; Arockiasamy, A. / Transformations and cracks in zirconia films leading to breakaway oxidation of Zircaloy. In: Acta Materialia. 2013 ; Vol. 61, No. 11. pp. 3923-3935.
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