Treatment of renal calculi by lithotripsy: Minimizing short-term shock wave induced renal damage by using antioxidants

Khaleel A. Al-Awadi, Elijah O. Kehinde, Issa Loutfi, Olusegun A. Mojiminiyi, Adel Al-Hunayan, Hamdy Abdul-Halim, Ahmed Al-Sarraf, Anjum Memon, Mathew P. Abraham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), the preferred method of treating kidney stones <3 cm in size, has been shown to induce silent and often self-limiting acute and chronic lesions in the kidneys and adjacent organs. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to determine whether ESWL produces ischaemia and reperfusion injury in the kidneys and whether oral administration of antioxidants reduces the degree of short-term renal injury in patients treated with ESWL. The study included 120 patients with renal stones (1-3 cm in size) treated with ESWL. The patients were divided into three groups-patients in group A (n = 39) served as a control group and were not given any antioxidants; patients in group B (n = 41) were given two capsules of antioxidants "Nature Made r" 2 h before ESWL, and 2 and 8 h after ESWL; and patients in group C (n = 40) were given two capsules of the antioxidants 2 and 8 h after ESWL. Double 'J' stents were inserted in patients before treatment with ESWL. Blood and urine samples were obtained from all patients just before the start of treatment with ESWL, and at 2 and 24 h and on 7th and 28th day after ESWL. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), α-tocopherol, cholesterol, albumin and ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio were determined. Urinary levels of albumin and β2 microglobulin were also determined as measures of renal tubular injury. At 24 h after ESWL, patients given antioxidants (groups B + C) had significantly reduced mean serum concentration of MDA (P < 0.001); higher levels of serum ascorbic acid (P < 0.001) and serum albumin (P < 0.001); lower α-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio, lower urinary albumin and β2 microglobulin levels compared with patients who did not receive antioxidants (group A). These findings suggest that treatment with ESWL generates free radicals through ischaemic/reperfusion injury mechanism, and that oral administration of antioxidant may protect these patients from short term renal injury caused by ESWL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-60
Number of pages10
JournalUrological Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2008


  • Antioxidants
  • Humans
  • Renal calculi
  • Renal injury
  • Shock waves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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