Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Massimiliano Lanzafame, Sandro Vento

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is an excessive immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may occur in either HIV-infected or uninfected patients, during or after completion of anti-TB therapy. In HIV-infected patients it occurs after initiation of antiretroviral therapy independently from an effective suppression of HIV viremia. There are two forms of IRIS: paradoxical or unmasking. Paradoxical IRIS is characterized by recurrent, new, or worsening symptoms of a treated case. Unmasking IRIS is an antiretroviral-associated inflammatory manifestation of a subclinical infection with a hastened presentation. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood and the epidemiology partially described. No specific tests can establish or rule out the diagnosis. Treatment is based on the use of anti-tuberculosis drugs sometime with adjunctive corticosteroids. Mortality is generally low.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-9
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2016


  • Antiretrovirals
  • HIV
  • IRIS
  • Immune reconstitution
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this