Type I interferon pathway assays in studies of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases: a systematic literature review informing EULAR points to consider

Agata Burska, Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Robert Biesen, Willem A. Dik, Maija Leena Eloranta, Giulio Cavalli, Marianne Visser, Dimitrios T. Boumpas, George Bertsias, Marie Wahren-Herlenius, Jan Rehwinkel, Marie Louise Frémond, Mary K. Crow, Lars Ronnblom, P. G. Conaghan, Marjan Versnel, Ed Vital

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives To systematically review the literature for assay methods that aim to evaluate type I interferon (IFN-I) pathway activation and to harmonise-related terminology. Methods Three databases were searched for reports of IFN-I and rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases. Information about the performance metrics of assays measuring IFN-I and measures of truth were extracted and summarised. A EULAR task force panel assessed feasibility and developed consensus terminology. Results Of 10 037 abstracts, 276 fulfilled eligibility criteria for data extraction. Some reported more than one technique to measure IFN-I pathway activation. Hence, 276 papers generated data on 412 methods. IFN-I pathway activation was measured using: qPCR (n=121), immunoassays (n=101), microarray (n=69), reporter cell assay (n=38), DNA methylation (n=14), flow cytometry (n=14), cytopathic effect assay (n=11), RNA sequencing (n=9), plaque reduction assay (n=8), Nanostring (n=5), bisulphite sequencing (n=3). Principles of each assay are summarised for content validity. Concurrent validity (correlation with other IFN assays) was presented for n=150/412 assays. Reliability data were variable and provided for 13 assays. Gene expression and immunoassays were considered most feasible. Consensus terminology to define different aspects of IFN-I research and practice was produced. Conclusions Diverse methods have been reported as IFN-I assays and these differ in what elements or aspects of IFN-I pathway activation they measure and how. No â € gold standard' represents the entirety of the IFN pathway, some may not be specific for IFN-I. Data on reliability or comparing assays were limited, and feasibility is a challenge for many assays. Consensus terminology should improve consistency of reporting.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere002876
JournalRMD Open
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2 2023

Keywords

  • Arthritis
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation
  • Lupus Erythematosus
  • Rheumatoid
  • Systemic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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