Ultrasensitive fluorescent carbon dot sensor for quantification of soluble and insoluble Cr(VI) in particulate matter

Enoch Kwasi Adotey, Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh, Lyazzat Tastanova, Amirbek Bekeshev, Dhawal Shah, Philip K. Hopke, Woojin Lee, Mannix P. Balanay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates advanced functional materials to address the need for practical and affordable analytical techniques for monitoring large amounts of insoluble Cr(VI). N,S-doped fluorescent carbon dots (f-CDs) were fabricated through microwave synthesis, with an average diameter of 10 nm. These f-CDs were explored as potential sensors for detecting Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter (PM). Laboratory experiments yielded positive results, showing average recoveries of 106.0%, 102.3%, 96.4%, and 101.7% for PbCrO4, BaCrO4, CaCrO4, and (NH4)2CrO4, respectively. Applying the fluorescence method to field PM samples, a method detection limit (MDL) of 0.32 ng/m3 for total Cr(VI) quantification was achieved. The fluorescence decay of carbon dots remained stable over time, suggesting that Cr(VI) quenching primarily occurred due to the internal filter effect through a static quenching mechanism. These f-CDs exhibited advantageous properties, including affordability, solubility, luminescence, and sensitivity, positioning them as a promising alternative for Cr(VI) detection in ambient air particulates. This study contributes to further developing carbon-based functional materials for detecting metallic air pollutants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number132671
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Publication statusPublished - Jan 15 2024


  • Air Quality
  • Insoluble chromium
  • Luminescence, Sensors
  • Particulate matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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