The assessment of natural resources and the ecological demand for underground water in Kazakhstan is based on a water-balance equation which considers underground lateral flow, hydrogeoecological regions and river basins. We propose a methodology to estimate the underground water resource for this region. The flow of water in all the rivers of Kazakhstan is estimated at 102.3 km3/year, of which 57.6 km3/year originates in the territory of the country, and 44.7 km3/year in the adjacent countries. With potential increase of the underground water usage up to 15.5 km3/year, the surface water volume could be decreased to 5 km3/year. Optimization of water resource use should be based on the introduction of the water-efficient process of reinjecting and recycling the water supply in all branches of industry, and a reduction in losses during distribution.
- underground water
- water balance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Computers in Earth Sciences